Long-Term Care and Assisted Living Directory – Definition of Indicators
If you have questions about the data in the Long-Term Care Directory, contact our office at 1-877-952-3181.
The B.C. values for these indicators are calculated using only those facilities included in the Long-Term Care Directory and may vary slightly from the provincial values reported by the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI).
All measures are based on resident assessments performed within the time period included in the report, except the average length of stay which is based on residents discharged within this time period.
Average age of population – average resident age.
Percent female – the percent of residents that are female.
Percent 85 years or older – the percent of residents that are aged 85 years or older.
Percent younger than 65 years – the percent of residents younger than 65 years of age.
Average length of stay (days) – the average length of stay for residents discharged within the measurement time period.
Percent of residents diagnosed with depression – the percent of residents that have been clinically diagnosed with depression (e.g. depression, anxiety, sad mood).
Percent of residents dependent in activities of daily living – the percent of residents that were somewhat or totally dependent in their activities of daily living (ADL) within the seven days prior to assessment. ADLs are assessed based on a person’s ability to perform seven activities: bed mobility, transfers, locomotion on the unit, dressing, eating, toilet use and personal hygiene.
Percent of residents in a wheelchair – the percent of residents whose primary mode of locomotion is a wheelchair. Even if walking some of the time, the resident is primarily dependent on a wheelchair to get around. The wheelchair may be motorized, self-propelled, or pushed by another person.
Percent of residents with dementia (mild to severe) – the percent of residents that have been clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease or other types of dementia.
Percent of residents with severe cognitive impairment (includes severe dementia) – the percent of residents assessed at moderate/severe, severe or very severe cognitive impairment. Cognitive performance is based on five factors: coma, cognitive skills for daily decision making, short-term memory, making themselves understood, and eating.
Percent of residents with physically abusive behaviour – the percent of residents that showed physically abusive behavioural symptoms (e.g. others were hit, shoved, scratched, sexually abused) within the seven days prior to assessment.
Average index of social engagement – the average index of social engagement (ISE) across all residents in the facility. The ISE is measured on a scale of zero to six and describes a resident’s sense of initiative and social involvement within the facility based on the presence of six factors: at ease interacting with others, at ease doing planned or structured activities, at ease doing self-initiated activities, establishes own goals, pursues involvement in the life of the facility, and accepts invitations into most group activities.
Percent of residents with low social engagement – the percent of residents where two or fewer of the six ISE factors were present within the seven days prior to assessment.
Case mix index (CMI) – a value calculated by grouping individuals into categories based on similar use of resources. A higher CMI value indicates higher resource needs within the facility.
Care Services and Quality Indicators
Percent of residents receiving physical (PT) / recreational (RT) / occupational (OT) therapy – the percent of residents receiving therapy within the seven days prior to assessment. Facilities are required to report, through regular clinical assessments of individuals, whether a resident received various types of therapies from a qualified therapist, or their supervised therapy assistant, for at least 15 minutes, in the last 7 days prior to the assessment date. Assessments are done using the InterRAI Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) 2.0. Occupational and physical therapy may not be required for every resident in a facility but the calculation is based on the total number of residents regardless of who needs these therapies. Reported recreational therapy must be beyond the usual activities programming provided by a facility and be provided by a qualified therapist (or an assistant under their supervision) and include measurable objectives and progress evaluations.
Percent of residents receiving depression medication – the percent of residents taking antidepressants.
Percent of residents taking antipsychotics without a diagnosis of psychosis – the percent of residents given an antipsychotic medication for a purpose other than for its approved use to manage psychosis. Antipsychotics drugs are sometimes used to manage symptoms in residents such as dementia, anxiety, agitation, or responsive behaviour arising from dementia. Some antipsychotic medications are also prescribed at low doses as a sleep aid.
Percent of resident with daily physical restraints – the percent of residents with daily use of physical restraint, which includes limb and trunk restraints and use of a reclining chair from which a resident cannot rise. CIHI states that, “restraints are sometimes used to manage behaviours or to prevent falls. There are many potential physical and psychological risks associated with applying physical restraints to older adults, and such use raises concerns about safety and quality of care.”
Percent of residents with falls in the last 30 days – the percent of residents that fell in the 30 days leading up to the date of the assessment. Falls are the leading cause of injury for seniors and contribute to a significant burden on the health care system. Residents are at a higher risk of falling if they have a history of falls or are taking certain medications. Preventing falls increases the safety and quality of care of residents.
Percent of residents with a worsened pressure ulcer – the percent of residents whose pressure ulcer had worsened since the previous assessment. Pressure ulcers can happen when a resident sits or lies in the same position for a long period of time. Immobility may be due to many physical and psychological factors, neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s and improper nutrition or hydration. Careful monitoring is required to ensure good quality of care.